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, 8 (2), 90-102

Human Gut Microbiota: The Links With Dementia Development


Human Gut Microbiota: The Links With Dementia Development

Rashad Alkasir et al. Protein Cell.


Dementia is a comprehensive category of brain diseases that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning. The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, which makes most of cases. New researches indicate that gastrointestinal tract microbiota are directly linked to dementia pathogenesis through triggering metabolic diseases and low-grade inflammation progress. A novel strategy is proposed for the management of these disorders and as an adjuvant for psychiatric treatment of dementia and other related diseases through modulation of the microbiota (e.g. with the use of probiotics).

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease; dementia; gut microbiota; inflammation; probiotics.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Schematic of some key players in the pathogenesis of AD. The gut microbiota regulation of neuro-inflammation and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity and may lead to AD. The bacterial products that gain access to the brain through the bloodstream and the area postrema, via cytokine release from mucosal immune cells, through the release of gut hormones such as 5-HT from EEC cells, or via afferent neural pathways, including the vagal nerve. NP: Neuropeptide; NT: Neurotransmitter; 5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine; DC: Dendritic cell; EEC: Enteroendocrine cell; Aβ: amyloid beta protein; AD: Alzheimer’s disease
Figure 2
Figure 2
The links between gut microbiota and metabolic diseases, as obesity and further development of T2DM with AD. FIAF: fasting-induced adipocyte factor; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; LPL: lipoprotein lipase; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; AD: Alzheimer’s disease

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