Leukocytosis and Leukemia

Prim Care. 2016 Dec;43(4):575-587. doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2016.07.007. Epub 2016 Oct 14.


Leukocytosis is among the most common findings on peripheral blood smear. A wide range of causes may mediate this finding, and careful clinical and laboratory evaluation assist in differentiating between benign and malignant causes of increased white blood cell counts. In this article, various nonmalignant causes are explored, including infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune, and allergic. In addition, malignant causes of leukocytosis are discussed, including myeloproliferative disorders, acute leukemia, and chronic leukemia, as well as treatment and monitoring for patients with these diseases.

Keywords: Inflammation; Leukemia; Leukocytosis; White blood cell count.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Disease Management
  • Hematologic Tests
  • Humans
  • Leukemia / diagnosis*
  • Leukemia / etiology
  • Leukemia / therapy*
  • Leukocytosis / diagnosis*
  • Leukocytosis / etiology
  • Leukocytosis / therapy*
  • Primary Health Care*