Lutein and zeaxanthin (L+Z) accumulate in the retina. Although vegetables are major contributors to their intake, a stronger association between fruits and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) has been reported. We hypothesized that L+Z intake from fruits would have a stronger association with L+Z status markers (MPOD, serum concentrations) than intake from vegetables or eggs, and that those associations would also differ according to plant foods color. One hundred eight subjects (57 men; age groups, 20-35 and 45-65 years) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. L+Z intake from fruits, vegetables, and eggs was determined using three 24-hour diet recalls and a country-specific carotenoid database. Vegetables were the major contributors (75%) to L+Z intake, followed by eggs (10%) and fruits (4%). Vegetables supplied 86% and 84% of the LandZ intake, respectively, and fruits supplied 3% and 16%. Green foods supplied 78% and 52% of LandZ, respectively, followed by red/orange (9% and 38%) and white/yellow (14% and 9%). Factorial analysis showed associations in older subjects. The explained variance of the first 2 principal components was 54% considering L+Z intake from fruits, vegetables, and eggs, and 55% considering L+Z intake from plant foods grouped by color. Macular pigment optical density is related to L+Z intake from fruits (0.264, P=.003) and is independent of that from vegetables and eggs. It is related to L+Z intake from red/orange foods (0.320, P=.000) and the serum concentrations to that from green foods (0.222, P=.11). Although vegetables and green foods of plant origin are the major contributors to L+Z intake, red/orange foods and fruits have the strongest relationship to MPOD in study participants (45-65 years of age).
Keywords: Dietary intake; Fruit and vegetables; Lutein; Macular pigment optical density; Zeaxanthin.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.