Pro-inflammatory cytokines produced in the tumor microenvironment lead to eradication of anti-tumor immunity and enhanced tumor cell survival. In the current study, we identified tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as a major factor triggering cancer cell immunosuppression against T cell surveillance via stabilization of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). We demonstrated that COP9 signalosome 5 (CSN5), induced by NF-κB p65, is required for TNF-α-mediated PD-L1 stabilization in cancer cells. CSN5 inhibits the ubiquitination and degradation of PD-L1. Inhibition of CSN5 by curcumin diminished cancer cell PD-L1 expression and sensitized cancer cells to anti-CTLA4 therapy.
Keywords: CSN5; PD-L1; TNF-α; anti-CTLA4; curcumin; deubiquitination.
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