Interleukin 6 (IL-6) production from synovial tissues of various diseases was examined. Augmented IL-6 production was found in inflammatory synovium not only in RA but also in other kinds of synovitis, including psoriatic arthritis and Behçet's disease. Increased amounts of IL-6-mRNA were detected in rheumatoid synovium using a dot blot hydridization technique. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between IL-6 production and accumulation of plasma cells in the synovium. These findings suggest that IL-6 plays an important role not only in immune response but also in active inflammation in various kinds of synovitis.