Background: Varicocele represents one of the most common surgically correctible urologic anomalies in adolescent males. The best procedure for the treatment of adolescent varicocele has not been established, but with recent advances in minimal access surgery, there have been many reports praising the safety and efficacy of laparoscopy and retroperitoneoscopy for the surgical correction of varicocele in adolescent. The aim of this review is to compare the results of Palomo's technique, with retroperitoneoscopic and transperitoneoscopic approaches in adolescent, analyzing recurrence, testicular growth and complications.
Methods: A literature search on PubMed and Cochrane Database was conducted with regard to management of varicocele in adolescent population. Twenty two English language studies that compared outcome of different minimally invasive treatments or outcome of minimally invasive and traditional surgical treatments for adolescent diagnosed with varicocele were included.
Results: Intraoperative complications of minimally invasive approaches occur in early cases, but in pediatric urology these procedures would become more efficient with experience and these approaches continue to increase in number. Postoperative hydrocele is the most postoperative compliance of Palom technique, and reports have shown a wide range of variability for his incidence, depending on the technique used for surgical treatment. Literature showed an increase of testicular volume for real growth of testis after surgery, and an intratesticular improvement in sperm quality after minimally invasive approach. In laparoscopic approach reports have showed very low recurrence because allows better vision of collateral veins, and a lymphatic sparing technique permit to identify lymphatic vessels in 100% of cases.
Conclusions: The literature has shown that laparoscopic varicocelectomy is the surgical approach most commonly reported in adolescent patients, and that its use is increasing for better training for surgeons and the ability to avoid operational hydrocele that is a main complication after technical Palomo's technique.
Keywords: Adolescent varicocelectomy; Paolomo’s technique; laparoscopic varicocelectomy; retroperitoneoscopic varicocelectomy.