Eighteen patients with pulmonary lesions of histiocytosis X were studied with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Thin-walled cysts were found in all but one patient. The other abnormalities included nodules (n = 14), cavitated nodules (n = 3), thick-walled cysts (n = 7), reticulation (n = 4), ground-glass opacities (n = 4), and irregular interfaces (n = 4). The lesions were most often diffuse (n = 16), with a topographic predominance in the upper or middle lung zones in nine patients. Comparison of CT scans and chest radiographs shows that small and large cysts and micronodules are better detected with CT. Comparison of abnormalities found in patients in the early and late stages of the disease, as well as the evolution observed in one case, suggests that CT patterns progress from nodules to cavitated nodules and thick-walled cysts to cysts to confluent cysts.