Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in protection of cells from electrophile-induced toxicity through up-regulating phase II detoxifying enzymes and phase III transporters. We previously reported that oxidative stress induces up-regulation of interleukin-11 (IL-11), a member of the IL-6 family that ameliorates acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. However, a role for IL-11 in protection of cells from electrophile-induced toxicity remains unclear. Here we show that an environmental electrophile, 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), but not 15d-prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) or tert-butylhydroxyquinone (tBHQ), induced IL-11 production. Consistent with a crucial role for prolonged ERK activation in H2O2-induced IL-11 production, 1,2-NQ, but not 15d-PGJ2 or tBHQ, elicited prolonged ERK activation. Conversely, inhibition of the ERK pathway by a MEK inhibitor completely blocked 1,2-NQ-induced IL-11 production at both protein and mRNA levels, further substantiating an intimate cross-talk between ERK activation and 1,2-NQ-induced IL-11 production. Promoter analysis of the Il11 gene revealed that two AP-1 sites were essential for 1,2-NQ-induced promoter activities. Among various members of the AP-1 family, Fra-1 was up-regulated by 1,2-NQ, and its up-regulation was blocked by a MEK inhibitor. Although NRF2 was not required for H2O2-induced IL11 up-regulation, NRF2 was essential for 1,2-NQ-induced IL11 up-regulation by increasing Fra-1 proteins possibly through promoting mRNA translation of FOSL1 Finally, intraperitoneal administration of 1,2-NQ induced body weight loss in wild-type mice, which was further exacerbated in Il11ra1-/- mice compared with Il11ra1+/- mice. Together, both Fra-1 and NRF2 play crucial roles in IL-11 production that protects cells from 1,2-NQ intestinal toxicity.
Keywords: AP1 transcription factor (AP-1); Fra-1; electrophile; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK); interleukin; nuclear factor 2 (erythroid-derived 2-like factor) (NFE2L2) (Nrf2); oxidative stress.
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.