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, 10 (1), 015005
eCollection

Improved Fire Retardancy of Thermoset Composites Modified With Carbon Nanofibers

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Improved Fire Retardancy of Thermoset Composites Modified With Carbon Nanofibers

Zhongfu Zhao et al. Sci Technol Adv Mater.

Abstract

Multifunctional thermoset composites were made from polyester resin, glass fiber mats and carbon nanofiber sheets (CNS). Their flaming behavior was investigated with cone calorimeter under well-controlled combustion conditions. The heat release rate was lowered by pre-planting carbon nanofiber sheets on the sample surface with the total fiber content of only 0.38 wt.%. Electron microscopy showed that carbon nanofiber sheet was partly burned and charred materials were formed on the combusting surface. Both the nanofibers and charred materials acted as an excellent insulator and/or mass transport barrier, improving the fire retardancy of the composite. This behavior agrees well with the general mechanism of fire retardancy in various nanoparticle-thermoplastic composites.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber; composites; flame retardance.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Heat release rate curves of GR-CNS, GR-CNF and GR.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Photos of (a) GR-CNS residue, (b) GR-CNF-residue and (c) GR.
Figure 3
Figure 3
SEM images of (a) pristine carbon nanofiber sheet, (b) underlayer residue and (c) upper residue of the burned GR-CNS sample.
Figure 4
Figure 4
(a) TGA and (b) DTA curves of pristine CNS, underlayer residues and upper residues (pristine CNS: pristine carbon nanofiber sheet).
Figure 5
Figure 5
TGA and DTA analyses of polyester resin.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Proposed mechanism of fire retardance of GR-CNS (CNF: carbon nanofiber).

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