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Review
, 9 (1), 014111
eCollection

Present Status and Future Prospects of Spherical Aberration Corrected TEM/STEM for Study of Nanomaterials

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Review

Present Status and Future Prospects of Spherical Aberration Corrected TEM/STEM for Study of Nanomaterials

Nobuo Tanaka. Sci Technol Adv Mater.

Abstract

The present status of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is described from the viewpoint of the observation of nanomaterials. Characteristic features in TEM and STEM are explained using the experimental data obtained by our group and other research groups. Cs correction up to the 3rd-order aberration of an objective lens has already been established and research interest is focused on correcting the 5th-order spherical aberration and the chromatic aberration in combination with the development of a monochromator below an electron gun for smaller point-to-point resolution in optics. Another fundamental area of interest is the limitation of TEM and STEM resolution from the viewpoint of the scattering of electrons in crystals. The minimum size of the exit-wave function below samples undergoing TEM imaging is determined from the calculation of scattering around related atomic columns in the crystals. STEM does not have this limitation because the resolution is, in principle, determined by the probe size. One of the future prospects of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is the possibility of extending the space around the sample holder by correcting the chromatic and spherical aberrations. This wider space will contribute to the ease of performing in situ experiments and various combinations of TEM and other analysis methods. High-resolution, in situ dynamic and 3D observations/analysis are the most important keywords in the next decade of high-resolution electron microscopy.

Keywords: TEM/STEM; electron diffraction; nanomaterials; spherical aberration correction; three-dimensional observation.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Phase contrast transfer function for Cs-corrected (a) and ordinary (b) TEMs.
Figure 2
Figure 2
200 kV Cs-corrected TEM image of a silicon crystal observed along the [011] direction, Cs = 0 ± 1 μ m, slightly underfocused [6].
Figure 3
Figure 3
(a) 200 kV Cs-corrected TEM image of a diamond crystal along the [011] direction and (b) intensity profile along the line shown in (a). The image has a point-to-point resolution of 89 pm [7].
Figure 4
Figure 4
200 kV Cs-corrected TEM image of an interface between silicon and silicon oxide. Clear images of the top surface without Fresnel fringes were obtained (reprinted with permission from Japanese Scientific Monthly 05-08 (2005) 621, © 2005, JSPS).
Figure 5
Figure 5
200 kV Cs-corrected TEM images of Pd-Ni-P metallic glass, showing the medium-range-order (MRO) state near the in-focus image. Cs=2 μm and Δf∼ (a) 1 nm, (b) 5 nm, and (c) 9 nm. A, B, C and D indicate MRO clusters [11] (Reprinted with permission from Phys. Rev. B 73 (2006) 012205, © 2006, The American Physical Society).
Figure 6
Figure 6
200 kV Cs-corrected TEM image of a thin area of GaAs crystal observed along [011] direction. The difference of 2 between the atomic numbers (Ga=31, As=33) is discriminated [12].
Figure 7
Figure 7
Comparison of images of AlCuCo and AlNiCo decagonal quasi-crystals using 200 kV ordinary and Cs-corrected STEM and Cs-corrected TEM. Al atoms can be visualized by Cs correction [13] ((c): reprinted with permission from Proc. IMC16, 1777, © 2006, Japan Society of Microscopy).
Figure 8
Figure 8
Images of oxygen (Z=8) atoms in a [011] MgO crystal (Reprinted with permission from Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 2004, p 982, © 2004, Cambridge University Press).
Figure 9
Figure 9
Newly developed image-subtraction method for decreasing nonlinear image contrast [15].
Figure 10
Figure 10
Visualization of smallest lattice spacing of graphene sheets in multiwall carbon nanotubes. (a) and (b) are images with different amounts of defocus [20].
Figure 11
Figure 11
Cs-corrected TEM images of hexagons of carbons in an SWCNT. (a, b) Separate images of upper and lower planes in SWCNT and (c) the atomic model [21].
Figure 12
Figure 12
Atomic arrangement of a 1D Pt-Rh chainlike molecule (reprinted with permission from Proc. IMC16, 598, © 2006, Japan Society of Microscopy).
Figure 13
Figure 13
Cs-corrected TEM images of a Pt–Rh molecule supported on an MgO thin film. Images (a) and (b) are obtained from different molecules located on the MgO film (reprinted with permission from Proc. IMC16, 598, © 2006, Japan Society of Microscopy).
Figure 14
Figure 14
Series of simulated images stacked in the vertical direction of a Pt-Rh molecule for various amounts of defocus (reprinted with permission from Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 2007,p 890, © 2007, Cambridge University Press).
Figure 15
Figure 15
5 nm selected area nanodiffraction pattern obtained from a Si crystal in a 200 kV Cs-corrected TEM; (a) image with aperture and (b) diffraction pattern [26].
Figure 16
Figure 16
Comparison of the intensity distribution of Airy disk showing coherence; (a) Cs-corrected STEM method [29] (reprinted with permission from Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 (2007) 151104, © 2007, American Institute of Physics) and (b) Cs-corrected TEM method [28].
Figure 17
Figure 17
Series of Cs-corrected STEM images showing jumping process of an antimony atom in a silicon crystal [30] (reprinted with permission from Proc. Microsc. Microanal. 2007, p 1186, © 2007, Cambridge University Press).
Figure 18
Figure 18
Cs-corrected STEM image of single platinum atoms and clusters in an amorphous carbon film [31]. The spacing of 0.226 nm is of the (111) lattice fringes in a platinum crystal [31].
Figure 19
Figure 19
Simulated intensity profiles of electron probes along z-direction for z-slice images by conventional and Cs-corrected STEM [19] (reprinted with permission from J. Electron Microsc. 55 2006 7, © 2006, Japan Society of Microscopy).

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