Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of Kerabala: a value-added ayurvedic formulation from virgin coconut oil inhibits pathogenesis in adjuvant-induced arthritis

Inflammopharmacology. 2017 Feb;25(1):41-53. doi: 10.1007/s10787-016-0298-8. Epub 2016 Nov 22.


Kerabala (CB) is a novel ayurvedic formulation used for treating various inflammatory diseases. This formulation was made from virgin coconut oil and it comprises extracts of Sida cordifolia, coconut milk and sesame oil. The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of CB on carrageenan-induced acute and adjuvant-induced chronic experimental models. 5 mg/kg bwt was found to be potent dose from carrageenan model and evaluated its effect in adjuvant-induced chronic arthritic model. The antioxidant assays like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation product, nitrate level and GSH were measured in paw tissue. Hematological parameters like hemoglobin (HB) count, ESR, WBC count, plasma CRP levels were analyzed. By RT-PCR, the inflammatory markers like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expressions were evaluated. The extracellular matrix proteins like MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by zymography and its expression by western blotting. Histopathology and cytology of paw tissue and synovium were analyzed. The result indicated that there was a significant increment in the levels of antioxidant enzymes on CB administration. The hematological markers such as ESR, WBC and plasma CRP levels were reduced by CB treatment and it also increases the HB level. The upregulated gene level expressions of inflammatory markers like COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 were down regulated by administration of CB. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression significantly reduced by CB administration. Massive influx of inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferative collagen in histological analysis of paw tissue of arthritic rat was decreased by CB administration. Synovial cytology of CB administrated group shows reduced number of reactive mesothelial cells and synovial inflammatory cells. This current study shows that ayurvedic drug CB has an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity in experimental arthritic model. CB as an anti-arthritic drug has beneficial effect for treating inflammation, tissue damage and pain associated with arthritis.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory; Antioxidant; Virgin coconut oil.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Arthritis, Experimental / drug therapy*
  • Arthritis, Experimental / metabolism
  • Arthritis, Experimental / pathology
  • Coconut Oil
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Compounding
  • Male
  • Malvaceae*
  • Medicine, Ayurvedic
  • Plant Bark
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Plant Oils / chemistry
  • Plant Oils / isolation & purification
  • Plant Oils / therapeutic use*
  • Plant Roots
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Sesame Oil / isolation & purification
  • Sesame Oil / pharmacology
  • Sesame Oil / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Oils
  • Sesame Oil
  • Coconut Oil