Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used and have been linked to acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients who survive an AKI episode are at risk for future adverse kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of our study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of NSAID use among AKI survivors.
Methods: The Southern Community Cohort Study is a prospective study of low-income adults aged 40-79 in the southeastern US. Through linkage with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 826 participants with an AKI diagnosis (ICD-9 584.5-584.9) at any age prior to cohort enrollment were identified. At baseline, data were collected on regular use of prescription and over-the-counter NSAIDs, as well as demographic, medical and other characteristics. Additional comorbidities were ascertained via linkage with CMS or the US Renal Data System.
Results: One hundred fifty-four AKI survivors (19%) reported regular NSAID use at cohort enrollment (52 prescription, 81 OTC, 21 both) and the percentage of NSAID users did not vary by time since AKI event. Over 58% of users were taking NSAIDS regularly both before and after their AKI event. Hypertension (83%), arthritis (71%), heart failure (44%), CKD (36%) and diabetes (35%) were prevalent among NSAID users. In a multivariable model, history of arthritis (OR: 3.00; 95% CI: 1.92, 4.68) and acetaminophen use (OR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.50, 3.93) were significantly associated with NSAID use, while prevalent CKD (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.98) and diabetes (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.69) were significantly inversely associated.
Conclusions: NSAID use among AKI survivors is common and highlights the need to understand physician and patient decision-making around NSAIDs and to develop effective strategies to reduce NSAID use in this vulnerable population.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury; NSAIDs.