Purpose: Studies comparing single- and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions often include a combined analysis of anatomic and non-anatomic techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare the revision rates between single- and double-bundle ACL reconstructions in the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register with regard to surgical variables as determined by the anatomic ACL reconstruction scoring checklist (AARSC).
Methods: Patients from the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register who underwent either single- or double-bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft during the period 2007-2014 were included. The follow-up period started with primary ACL reconstruction, and the outcome measure was set as revision surgery. An online questionnaire based on the items of the AARSC was used to determine the surgical technique implemented in the single-bundle procedures. These were organized into subgroups based on surgical variables, and the revision rates were compared with the double-bundle ACL reconstruction. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated and adjusted for confounders by Cox regression.
Results: A total of 22,460 patients were included in the study, of which 21,846 were single-bundle and 614 were double-bundle ACL reconstruction. Double-bundle ACL reconstruction had a revision frequency of 2.0% (n = 12) and single-bundle 3.2% (n = 689). Single-bundle reconstruction had an increased risk of revision surgery compared with double-bundle [adjusted HR 1.98 (95% CI 1.12-3.51), p = 0.019]. The subgroup analysis showed a significantly increased risk of revision surgery in patients undergoing single-bundle with anatomic technique using transportal drilling [adjusted HR 2.51 (95% CI 1.39-4.54), p = 0.002] compared with double-bundle ACL reconstruction. Utilizing a more complete anatomic technique according to the AARSC lowered the hazard rate considerably when transportal drilling was performed but still resulted in significantly increased risk of revision surgery compared with double-bundle ACL reconstruction [adjusted HR 1.87 (95% CI 1.04-3.38), p = 0.037].
Conclusions: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is associated with a lower risk of revision surgery than single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Single-bundle procedures performed using transportal femoral drilling technique had significantly higher risk of revision surgery compared with double-bundle. However, a reference reconstruction with transportal drilling defined as a more complete anatomic reconstruction reduces the risk of revision surgery considerably.
Level of evidence: III.
Keywords: ACL; Anatomic; Anterior cruciate ligament; Checklist; Double-bundle; Reconstruction; Revision; Single-bundle; Surgery.