To examine the hypothesis that interleukin-1 may inhibit the secretion of gastric acid, the present study was carried out using pylorusligated rats. Based upon three lines of evidence, we report here that interleukin-1, both endogenously released and exogenously administered, suppresses gastric acid secretion and that the interleukin-1-induced inhibition of acid output is possibly mediated by prostaglandin. First, lipopolysaccharide, a potent stimulant of the release and production of endogenous interleukin-1, caused the suppression of gastric acid, and this response was dose-related. Second, the intraperitoneal injection of interleukin-1 resulted in a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid output. Third, the administration of indomethacin completely blocked the suppression of gastric acid secretion induced by interleukin-1. These results demonstrated for the first time that IL-1 might be involved in the regulation of gastric secretion.