The Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System in Obesity and Hypertension: Roles in the Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome

Med Clin North Am. 2017 Jan;101(1):129-137. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2016.08.009.


In the United States, more than 50 million people have blood pressure at or above 120/80 mm Hg. All components of cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) are linked to metabolic abnormalities and obesity. A major driver for CRS is obesity. Current estimates show that many of those with hypertension and CRS show some degree of systemic and cardiovascular insulin resistance. Several pathophysiologic factors participate in the link between hypertension and CRS. This article updates recent literature with a focus on the function of insulin resistance, obesity, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system-mediated oxidative stress on endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of hypertension.

Keywords: Adipocyte; Angiotensin II; Hypertension; Insulin resistance; Obesity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome / complications
  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / metabolism*
  • Renin / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Renin-Angiotensin System*
  • Sympathetic Nervous System / physiopathology


  • Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists
  • Renin