Neurological localizations of sarcoidosis are heterogeneous and may affect virtually every part of the central or peripheral nervous system. They are often the inaugural manifestation of sarcoidosis. The diagnosis may be difficult due to the lack of extra-neurological localization. Diagnosis may be discussed in the presence of an inflammatory neurological disease, in particular in case of suggestive radiological or biological pattern. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis shows lymphocytic pleiocytosis, often with low glucose level. The diagnosis relies on a clinical, biological and radiological presentation consistent with neurosarcoidosis, the presence of non-caseating granuloma and exclusion of differential diagnoses. Screening for other localizations of sarcoidosis, in particular cardiac disease may be obtained during neurosarcoidosis. The treatment of neurosarcoidosis relies on corticosteroids although immunosuppressive drugs are usually added because of the chronic course of this condition and to limit the side effects of steroids. Treatments and follow-up may be prolonged because of the high rate of relapses.
Keywords: Antagonistes du TNFα; Corticosteroids; Corticostéroïdes; Granulomas; Granulome; Immunosuppresseurs; Immunosuppressive drugs; Neurosarcoidosis; Neurosarcoïdose; Sarcoidosis; Sarcoïdose; TNFα antagonists.
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