A hemagglutinating virus isolate designated 11OG0352, was obtained from a duck fecal sample. Genetic and virological analyses indicated that it might represent a novel serotype of avian paramyxovirus (APMV). Electron micrographs showed that the morphology of the virus particle was similar to that of APMV. The complete genome of this virus comprised 15,444 nucleotides complying with the paramyxovirus "rule of six" and contains six open reading frames (3'-N-P-M-F-HN-L-5'). The phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome revealed that the virus was a member of the genus Avulavirus, but that it was distinct from APMV-1 to APMV-13. Although the F-protein cleavage site was TREGK↓L, which resembles a lentogenic strain of APMV-1, the K residue at position -1 of the cleavage site was first discovered in APMV members. The phosphoprotein gene of isolate 11OG0352 contains a putative RNA editing site, 3'-AUUUUCCC-5' (negative sense) which sequence differs from that of other APMVs. The intracerebral pathogenicity index test did not detect virulence in infected chicks. In hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests, an antiserum against this virus did not detectably react with other APMVs (serotypes 1-4, 6-9) except for low reciprocal cross-reactivity with APMV-6. We designated this isolate, as APMV-14/duck/Japan/11OG0352/2011 and propose that it is a novel APMV serotype. The HI test may not be widely applicable for the classification of a new serotype because of the limited availability of reference antisera against all serotypes and cross-reactivity data. The nucleotide sequence identities of the whole genome of 11OG0352 and other APMVs ranged from 46.3% to 56.1%. Such comparison may provide a useful tool for classifying new APMV isolates. However, the nucleotide sequence identity between APMV-12 and APMV-13 was higher (64%), which was nearly identical to the lowest nucleotide identity (67%) reported in subgroups within the serotype. Therefore, consensus criteria for using whole genome analysis should be established.
Keywords: APMV-14; Avian paramyxovirus; F-protein cleavage site; Novel serotype; Whole genome sequencing.
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