Is osteoporosis a predictor for future sarcopenia or vice versa? Four-year observations between the second and third ROAD study surveys

Osteoporos Int. 2017 Jan;28(1):189-199. doi: 10.1007/s00198-016-3823-0. Epub 2016 Nov 24.


In a 4-year follow-up study that enrolled 1099 subjects aged ≥60 years, sarcopenia prevalence was estimated at 8.2%. Moreover, the presence of osteoporosis was significantly associated with short-term sarcopenia occurrence, but the reciprocal relationship was not observed, suggesting that osteoporosis would increase the risk of osteoporotic fracture and sarcopenia occurrence.

Introduction: The present 4-year follow-up study was performed to clarify the prevalence, incidence, and relationships between sarcopenia (SP) and osteoporosis (OP) in older Japanese men and women.

Methods: We enrolled 1099 participants (aged, ≥60 years; 377 men) from the second survey of the Research on Osteoarthritis/Osteoporosis against Disability (ROAD) study (2008-2010) and followed them up for 4 years. Handgrip strength, gait speed, skeletal muscle mass, and bone mineral density were assessed. SP was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. OP was defined based on the World Health Organization criteria.

Results: SP prevalence was 8.2% (men, 8.5%; women, 8.0%) in the second survey. In those with SP, 57.8% (21.9%; 77.6%) had OP at the lumbar spine L2-4 and/or femoral neck. SP cumulative incidence was 2.0%/year (2.2%/year; 1.9%/year). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that OP was significantly associated with SP occurrence within 4 years (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-6.12; p < 0.01), but the reciprocal relationship was not significantly observed (2.11; 0.59-7.59; p = 0.25).

Conclusions: OP might raise the short-term risk of SP incidence. Therefore, OP would not only increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture but may also increase the risk for SP occurrence.

Keywords: Incidence; Osteoporosis; Osteosarcopenia; Population-based cohort study; Sarcopenia.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bone Density / physiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / complications*
  • Osteoporosis / epidemiology
  • Osteoporosis / physiopathology
  • Prevalence
  • Sarcopenia / epidemiology
  • Sarcopenia / etiology*
  • Sarcopenia / physiopathology
  • Sex Distribution