Locally Recurrent Disease Related to Anal Canal Cancers

Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2017 Jan;26(1):115-125. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2016.07.006.


Surgery for anal cancer is usually reserved for patients with persistent disease or local recurrence after definitive chemoradiation therapy. Patients with local recurrence should be re-evaluated for evidence of metastatic disease using positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and the local anatomy should be delineated with MRI. Eligible patients should undergo tailored surgery with the aim of achieving an R0 resection. Management is best undertaken within a specialized multidisciplinary setting. Careful patient selection and shared decision making are paramount for achieving acceptable patient-centered outcomes.

Keywords: Anal canal; Anal cancer; Anal squamous cell carcinoma; Exenteration; Local recurrence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anal Canal
  • Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • Anus Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy*
  • Chemoradiotherapy
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy*
  • Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography*
  • Retrospective Studies