Application of flow cytometry to wine microorganisms

Food Microbiol. 2017 Apr:62:221-231. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2016 Oct 18.


Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing detection and enumeration of microbial populations in food and during food process. Thanks to the fluorescent dyes used and specific probes, FCM provides information about cell physiological state and allows enumeration of a microorganism in a mixed culture. Thus, this technique is increasingly used to quantify pathogen, spoilage microorganisms and microorganisms of interest. Since one decade, FCM applications to the wine field increase greatly to determine population and physiological state of microorganisms performing alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Wine spoilage microorganisms were also studied. In this review we briefly describe FCM principles. Next, a deep revision concerning enumeration of wine microorganisms by FCM is presented including the fluorescent dyes used and techniques allowing a yeast and bacteria species specific enumeration. Then, the last chapter is dedicated to fluorescent dyes which are used to date in fluorescent microscopy but applicable in FCM. This chapter also describes other interesting "future" techniques which could be applied to study the wine microorganisms. Thus, this review seeks to highlight the main advantages of the flow cytometry applied to wine microbiology.

Keywords: Enumeration; Flow cytometry; Identification; Physiological state; Wine bacteria; Wine yeasts.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / growth & development*
  • Bacteria / metabolism
  • Colony Count, Microbial*
  • Fermentation
  • Flow Cytometry / methods*
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Food Microbiology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / growth & development
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / physiology
  • Wine / analysis
  • Wine / microbiology*
  • Yeasts / classification
  • Yeasts / growth & development*
  • Yeasts / physiology


  • Fluorescent Dyes