Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in All 50 United States, From 2000 Through 2012

Gastroenterology. 2017 Mar;152(4):812-820.e5. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.11.020. Epub 2016 Nov 23.


Background & aims: The incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been reported to be plateauing in the United States. The United States has large racial, ethnic, and regional variation; we collected data from all 50 states to better analyze changes in HCC incidence in the entire United States.

Methods: We collected data from the US Cancer Statistics registry, which covers 97% of the population, and calculated adjusted incidence rates. We assessed annual trends among sociodemographic and geographic subgroups using joinpoint analysis.

Results: HCC incidence increased from 4.4/100,000 in 2000 to 6.7/100,000 in 2012, increasing by 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3%-4.7%) annually between 2000 and 2009, but only by 0.7% annually (95% CI, -0.2% to 1.6%) from 2010 through 2012. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) between 2000 and 2012 was higher in men (increase, 3.7%) than in women (increase, 2.7%), and highest in 55- to 59-year-old individuals (AAPC, 8.9%; 95% CI, 7.1%-10.7%) and 60- to 64-year-old individuals (AAPC, 6.4%; 95% CI, 4.7%-8.2%). By 2012, rates in Hispanics surpassed those in Asians, and rates in Texas surpassed those in Hawaii (9.71/100,000 vs 9.68/100,000). Geographic variation within individual race and ethnic groups was observed, but rates were highest in all major race and ethnic groups in Texas.

Conclusions: In an analysis of the incidence of HCC in all 50 US states, we found the rate of increase in HCC to have slowed from 2010 through 2012. However, incidence is increasing in subgroups such as men ages 55 to 64 years old-especially those born in the peak era of hepatitis C virus infection and among whites/Caucasians. Rates in Hispanics have surpassed those in Asian Americans. We observed geographic differences, with Texas having the highest age-adjusted HCC rates nationwide.

Keywords: Epidemiology; HBV; NAFLD; USCS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Asian Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ethnology
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Hispanic Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Liver Neoplasms / ethnology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Registries
  • Sex Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult