The Association between VDR Gene Polymorphisms and Diabetic Retinopathy Susceptibility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Biomed Res Int. 2016:2016:5305282. doi: 10.1155/2016/5305282. Epub 2016 Nov 6.


Aims. Studies on the associations of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR) susceptibility reported conflicting results. A systematic meta-analysis was undertaken to clarify this topic. Methods. A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI) was carried out until March 31, 2016. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association. Results. A total of 7 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis (649 cases and 707 controls). Pooled ORs showed a significant association between FokI polymorphism and DR risk in all the four genetic models (OR = 1.612 (1.354~1.921), 1.988 (1.481~2.668), 1.889 (1.424~2.505), and 2.674 (1.493~4.790) in allelic, dominant, recessive, and additive models, resp., PZ < 0.01), but not for TaqI or BsmI polymorphism (PZ > 0.05). Similar results were found in the subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were relatively stable and reliable. Results of Begg's and Egger's tests suggested a lack of publication bias. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that DR was significantly associated with VDR gene FokI polymorphism. However, due to the relatively small sample size in this meta-analysis, further studies with a larger sample size should be done to confirm the findings.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics*
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics*


  • Receptors, Calcitriol