Elucidating the mechanisms by which short chain fatty acids (SCFA) reduce body weight may assist in the development of an effective weight control strategy. Dietary supplementation of acetate, propionate, butyrate or their admixture was shown to significantly inhibit the body weight gain induced by high-fat diet feeding. Supplementation of SCFAs caused significant changes in the expressions of G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) and GPR41 characterized by increases in the adipose tissue and reductions in the colon. Additionally, they influenced the bacterial community structure in feces, with a reduction in the proportion of Firmicutes and an increase in the proportion of Bacteroidetes. The effects of dietary SCFAs on the GPR expression and gut microbiota composition may further result in body weight reduction by enhancing triglyceride hydrolysis and FFA oxidation in the adipose tissue, promoting beige adipogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis, and inhibiting chronic inflammation.