Safeguarding pollinators and their values to human well-being

Nature. 2016 Dec 8;540(7632):220-229. doi: 10.1038/nature20588. Epub 2016 Nov 28.


Wild and managed pollinators provide a wide range of benefits to society in terms of contributions to food security, farmer and beekeeper livelihoods, social and cultural values, as well as the maintenance of wider biodiversity and ecosystem stability. Pollinators face numerous threats, including changes in land-use and management intensity, climate change, pesticides and genetically modified crops, pollinator management and pathogens, and invasive alien species. There are well-documented declines in some wild and managed pollinators in several regions of the world. However, many effective policy and management responses can be implemented to safeguard pollinators and sustain pollination services.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bees / physiology
  • Butterflies / physiology
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation of Natural Resources / trends*
  • Crop Production* / economics
  • Crops, Agricultural / genetics
  • Crops, Agricultural / physiology
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Policy / trends*
  • Humans
  • Insecta / physiology*
  • Introduced Species
  • Pesticides / adverse effects
  • Pesticides / toxicity
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / drug effects
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • Pollination*
  • Population Dynamics
  • Vertebrates / physiology*


  • Pesticides