Improved proliferation of antigen-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes using a multimodal nanovaccine

Int J Nanomedicine. 2016 Nov 16;11:6103-6121. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S112432. eCollection 2016.


The present study investigated the immunoenhancing property of our newly designed nanovaccine, that is, its ability to induce antigen-specific immunity. This study also evaluated the synergistic effect of a novel compound PBS-44, an α-galactosylceramide analog, in boosting the immune response induced by our nanovaccine. The nanovaccine was prepared by encapsulating ovalbumin (ova) and an adjuvant within the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles. Quantitative analysis of our study data showed that the encapsulated vaccine was physically and biologically stable; the core content of our nanovaccine was found to be released steadily and slowly, and nearly 90% of the core content was slowly released over the course of 25 days. The in vivo immunization studies exhibited that the nanovaccine induced stronger and longer immune responses compared to its soluble counterpart. Similarly, intranasal inhalation of the nanovaccine induced more robust antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response than intraperitoneal injection of nanovaccine.

Keywords: GalCer; dendritic cells; inhalable vaccine; nanovaccine.

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Cell Death / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / physiology
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Galactosylceramides / chemistry
  • Galactosylceramides / pharmacology*
  • Immunization
  • Injections, Intraperitoneal
  • Lactic Acid / chemistry
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Microscopy, Atomic Force
  • Nanoparticles* / chemistry
  • Ovalbumin / chemistry
  • Ovalbumin / immunology
  • Polyglycolic Acid / chemistry
  • Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines / chemistry
  • Vaccines / immunology
  • Vaccines / pharmacology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Galactosylceramides
  • PBS-44
  • Vaccines
  • alpha-galactosylceramide
  • Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer
  • Polyglycolic Acid
  • Lactic Acid
  • Ovalbumin