Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder suffers from mitochondrial dysfunction

BBA Clin. 2016 Oct 18;6:153-158. doi: 10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.10.003. eCollection 2016 Dec.

Abstract

Background: Pathophysiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not known, and therefore the present study investigated mitochondrial defects, if any in cybrids created from patients and control population.

Methods: To investigate mitochondrial pathology in ADHD, cybrids cell lines were created from ADHD probands and controls by fusing their platelets with ρ0-cells prepared from SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Cellular respiration, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential and morphology were evaluated employing oxygraph, mitochondria-specific fluorescence staining and evaluation by FACS, and immunocytochemistry. HPLC-electrochemical detection, quantitative RT-PCR and Blue Native PAGE were employed respectively for assays of serotonin, mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 subunits levels and complex V activity.

Results: Significantly low cellular and mitochondrial respiration, ATPase6/8 transcripts levels, mitochondrial complex V activity and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and elevated oxidative stress were observed in ADHD cybrids. Expression of monoamine oxidizing mitochondrial enzymes, MAO-A and MAO-B levels remained unaffected. Two-fold increase in serotonin level was noted in differentiated cybrid-neurons.

Conclusions: Since cybrids are shown to replicate mitochondrial defects seen in post-mortem brains, these observed defects in ADHD cybrids strongly suggest mitochondrial pathology in this disorder.

General significance: Mitochondrial defects are detected in ADHD cybrids created from patients' platelets, implying bioenergetics crisis in the mitochondria could be a contributory factor for ADHD pathology and/or phenotypes.

Keywords: ATPase; Cybrids; Mitochondrial membrane potential; Mitochondrial pathology; Respiration; Serotonin.