Human sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter type 1 (NPT1/SLC17A1) is one of the urate transporters in the kidney. Our recent study revealed that a common missense variant, I269T (rs1165196), of NPT1 decreases the risk of renal underexcretion gout. Moreover, we demonstrated that human NPT1 is localized to the apical membrane of the renal proximal tubule, and that I269T is the gain-of-function variant which increases the NPT1-mediated urate export. However, the mechanism by which I269T variant increases the urate export remains to be clarified. Thus, we performed immunostaining and functional analysis of human NPT1 using the Xenopus oocyte expression system. For comparison of human NPT1 expression levels of oocyte membrane between 269I (wild type) and 269T (variant), immunostaining was performed with anti-human NPT1 antibodies. As a result, we showed that NPT1 I269T variant did not change the human NPT1 membrane expression levels, although NPT1 I269T variant increased the urate transport compared with NPT1 wild type. Combined with the previous report that I269T variant did not induce Km changes but increased the Vmax of urate transport in a proteoliposome system, our findings suggest that I269T variant increases NPT1-mediated urate export without increase of NPT1 expression levels on the membrane. Thus, I269T, a common missense variant of NPT1, might have faster conformation changes than NPT1 wild type in terms of the alternating-access model of transporters, and increases renal urate export in humans.
Keywords: SLC transporters; single nucleotide polymorphism; uric acid.