Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2016 Dec 1;11(12):e0167124.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167124. eCollection 2016.

Coenzyme Q10 Status as a Determinant of Muscular Strength in Two Independent Cohorts

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Coenzyme Q10 Status as a Determinant of Muscular Strength in Two Independent Cohorts

Alexandra Fischer et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Aging is associated with sarcopenia, which is a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is involved in several important functions that are related to bioenergetics and protection against oxidative damage; however, the role of CoQ10 as a determinant of muscular strength is not well documented. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the determinants of muscular strength by examining hand grip force in relation to CoQ10 status, gender, age and body mass index (BMI) in two independent cohorts (n = 334, n = 967). Furthermore, peak flow as a function of respiratory muscle force was assessed. Spearman's correlation revealed a significant positive association between CoQ10/cholesterol level and hand grip in the basic study population (p<0.01) as well as in the validation population (p<0.001). In the latter, we also found a negative correlation with the CoQ10 redox state (p<0.01), which represents a lower percentage of the reduced form of CoQ10 (ubiquinol) in subjects who exhibit a lower muscular strength. Furthermore, the age of the subjects showed a negative correlation with hand grip (p<0.001), whereas BMI was positively correlated with hand grip (p<0.01), although only in the normal weight subgroup (BMI <25 kg/m2). Analysis of the covariance (ANCOVA) with hand grip as the dependent variable revealed CoQ10/cholesterol as a determinant of muscular strength and gender as the strongest effector of hand grip. In conclusion, our data suggest that both a low CoQ10/cholesterol level and a low percentage of the reduced form of CoQ10 could be an indicator of an increased risk of sarcopenia in humans due to their negative associations to upper body muscle strength, peak flow and muscle mass.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Fig 1
Fig 1. Scatterplots of correlations between hand grip and CoQ10/cholesterol, body mass index, age, peak flow, creatine kinase and creatinine in the basic study population (n = 334).
Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship (p<0.01) between hand grip and CoQ10/cholesterol (A), BMI (B), peak flow (C), creatine kinase (E) and creatinine (F), whereas the correlation between hand grip and age (C) was statistically not significant. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r), p-values and regression lines are given. CoQ10: Coenzyme Q10; BMI: body mass index.
Fig 2
Fig 2. Scatterplots of correlations between hand grip and CoQ10/cholesterol ratio, body mass index, age and CoQ10 redox in the validation population (n = 967).
Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship (p<0.01) between hand grip and CoQ10/cholesterol (A), normal BMI (<25 kg/m2, B), age (C) and CoQ10 redox (D). The correlations between hand grip and overweight (BMI 25–30 kg/m2) and obese subjects (BMI >30) were statistically not significant. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r), p-values and regression lines are given. CoQ10: Coenzyme Q10; CoQ10 redox: % oxidized coenzyme Q10 in total; BMI: body mass index.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 3 articles

References

    1. Delmonico MJ, Harris TB, Lee JS, Visser M, Nevitt M, Kritchevsky SB, et al. Alternative definitions of sarcopenia, lower extremity performance, and functional impairment with aging in older men and women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2007;55(5):769–74. Epub 2007/05/12. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01140.x - DOI - PubMed
    1. Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt M, Schwartz AV, et al. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. The Journals of Gerontology Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2006;61(10):1059–64. Epub 2006/11/02. - PubMed
    1. Wohlgemuth SE, Seo AY, Marzetti E, Lees HA, Leeuwenburgh C. Skeletal muscle autophagy and apoptosis during aging: effects of calorie restriction and life-long exercise. Experimental Gerontology. 2010;45(2):138–48. Epub 2009/11/12. 10.1016/j.exger.2009.11.002 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Kim JH, Kwak HB, Leeuwenburgh C, Lawler JM. Lifelong exercise and mild (8%) caloric restriction attenuate age-induced alterations in plantaris muscle morphology, oxidative stress and IGF-1 in the Fischer-344 rat. Experimental Gerontology. 2008;43(4):317–29. Epub 2008/03/04. 10.1016/j.exger.2007.12.012 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Bentinger M, Tekle M, Dallner G. Coenzyme Q—biosynthesis and functions. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2010;396(1):74–9. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.02.147 - DOI - PubMed

MeSH terms

Grant support

Data from the basic study population presented in this paper derived from the PopGen control cohort, a population-based sample of mainly Caucasian individuals, identified through official population registries in Kiel (Germany). Participants were recruited into the PopGen biobank between June 2005 and February 2006. The study was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (01EY1103). Subjects of the validation population were randomly recruited via registry office of Kiel, Germany or via the adiposity ambulance of UKSH, Kiel, Germany. Members are part of the Focus Cohort, which was supported by a grant of the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (0315540A). Determining and analyzing the CoQ10 status was financially supported by Kaneka Corporation, Japan. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
Feedback