Diagnosis and Updates in Celiac Disease

Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2017 Jan;27(1):79-92. doi: 10.1016/j.giec.2016.08.011.


Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder induced by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. It can result in intraintestinal and extraintestinal manifestations of disease including diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, osteoporosis, or lymphoma. Diagnosis of celiac disease is made through initial serologic testing and then confirmed by histopathologic examination of duodenal biopsies. Generally celiac disease is a benign disorder with a good prognosis in those who adhere to a gluten-free diet. However, in refractory disease, complications may develop that warrant additional testing with more advanced radiologic and endoscopic methods. This article reviews the current strategy to diagnose celiac disease and the newer modalities to assess for associated complications.

Keywords: Celiac disease; Celiac sprue; Enteropathy; Gluten; Villous atrophy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anemia / diagnosis
  • Anemia / etiology
  • Biopsy
  • Capsule Endoscopy / methods*
  • Celiac Disease / complications
  • Celiac Disease / diagnosis*
  • Celiac Disease / diet therapy
  • Diarrhea / diagnosis
  • Diarrhea / etiology
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Duodenum / pathology
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma / diagnosis
  • Lymphoma / etiology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Osteoporosis / diagnosis
  • Osteoporosis / etiology
  • Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography / methods*
  • Serologic Tests / methods*
  • Weight Loss