Ganoderma lucidum beta 1,3/1,6 glucan as an immunomodulator in inflammation induced by a high-cholesterol diet

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Dec 3;16(1):500. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1476-3.


Background: Binding of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) with the receptor results in a series of signal transfers (signalling cascades), which activates the transcription factors for regulating inflammation. Excess cholesterol intake leads to an increase in the distance between fat cells and capillaries, which may cause hypoxia in the fat tissue of obese mice. This hypoxia induces the death of fat cells, resulting in the inflammation of adipose tissue or an increase in the inflammatory gene expression associated with obesity.

Methods: The current study examined the immunomodulation effect of G. lucidum beta 1,3/1,6 glucan according to immunoglobulin, poly-Ig receptor expression, Nature Killer cell (NK cell) activity, lymphocytes proliferation and cytokines expression.

Results: Our present study shows that feeding G. lucidum beta 1,3/1,6 glucan to mice induces IgA or IgG expression in the serum and small intestine washing fluid and enhances poly-Ig receptor expression in the small intestine moreover, the observation of the IL-2 and Nature killer cell activity were exchanged.

Conclusions: The effect of a high-cholesterol diet in the inflammatory response was observed in heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and colon tissues through histopathological evaluations. The presented evidence demonstrates that the inflammation response in the high-cholesterol diet group was much higher than in the other groups and the beta 1,3/1,6 glucan reduces inflammation in obese mice fed a high-cholesterol diet.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cholesterol, Dietary / administration & dosage
  • Diet, High-Fat*
  • Immunoglobulin A / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology*
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Intestine, Small / drug effects
  • Intestine, Small / immunology
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • Liver / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin / genetics
  • Reishi*
  • beta-Glucans / pharmacology*


  • Cholesterol, Dietary
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin
  • beta-Glucans
  • beta-1,6-glucan
  • beta-1,3-glucan