Purpose: To study the incidence and risk factors for retinal artery occlusion (RAO) in cardiac surgery.
Design: Retrospective study using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS).
Methods: The NIS was searched for cardiac surgery. Retinal artery occlusion was identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Postulated risk factors based on literature review were included in multivariate logistic models.
Main outcome measures: Diagnosis of RAO.
Results: A total of 5 872 833 cardiac operative procedures were estimated in the United States from 1998 to 2013, with 4564 RAO cases (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4282-4869). Nationally estimated RAO incidence was 7.77/10 000 cardiac operative procedures from 1998 to 2013 (95% CI, 7.29-8.29). Associated with increased RAO were giant cell arteritis (odds ratio [OR], 7.73; CI, 2.78-21.52; P < 0.001), transient cerebral ischemia (OR, 7.67; CI, 5.31-11.07; P < 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (OR, 7.52; CI, 6.22-9.09; P < 0.001), embolic stroke (OR, 4.43; CI, 3.05-6.42; P < 0.001), hypercoagulability (OR, 2.90; CI, 1.56-5.39; P < 0.001), myxoma (OR, 2.43; CI, 1.39-4.26; P = 0.002), diabetes mellitus (DM) with ophthalmic complications (OR, 1.89; CI, 1.10-3.24; P = 0.02), and aortic insufficiency (OR, 1.85; CI, 1.26-2.71; P = 0.002). Perioperative bleeding, aortic and mitral valve surgery, and septal surgery increased the odds of RAO. Negatively associated with RAO were female gender (OR, 0.77; CI, 0.66-0.89; P < 0.001), thrombocytopenia (OR, 0.79; CI, 0.62-1.00; P = 0.049), acute coronary syndrome (OR, 0.72; CI, 0.58-0.89; P = 0.003), atrial fibrillation (OR, 0.82; CI, 0.70-0.95; P = 0.01), congestive heart failure (OR, 0.73; CI, 0.60-0.88; P < 0.001), DM 2 (OR, 0.74; CI, 0.61-0.89; P = 0.001), and smoking (OR, 0.82; CI, 0.70-0.97; P = 0.02).
Conclusions: Risk factors for RAO in cardiac surgery include giant cell arteritis, carotid stenosis, stroke, hypercoagulable state, and DM with ophthalmic complications; associated with lower risk were female gender, thrombocytopenia, acute coronary syndrome, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, DM 2, and smoking. Surgery in which the heart was opened (e.g., septal repair) versus surgery in which it was not (e.g., CABG) and perioperative bleeding increased the risk of RAO.
Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.