Objective: To define the effect of a history of cancer on in-hospital and long-term mortality after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Patients and methods: In this retrospective cohort study of 2346 patients with STEMI enrolled in the Mayo Clinic PCI registry from November 1, 2000, through October 31, 2010, we identified 261 patients (11.1%) with a history of cancer. The in-hospital and long-term outcomes (median follow-up, 6.2 years; interquartile range=4.3-8.5 years), including cardiac and noncardiac death and heart failure hospitalization, of these patients were compared with those of 1313 cancer-negative patients matched on age, sex, family history of coronary artery disease, and date of STEMI.
Results: Patients with cancer had higher in-hospital noncardiac (1.9% vs 0.4%; P=.03) but similar cardiac (5.8% vs 4.6%; P=.37) mortality as matched controls. The group at highest acute mortality risk were those diagnosed as having cancer within 6 months before STEMI (hazard ratio [HR]=7.0; 95% CI, 1.4-34.4; P=.02). At 5 years, patients with cancer had similar cardiac mortality (4.2% vs 5.8%; HR=1.27; 95% CI, 0.77-2.10; P=.35) despite more heart failure hospitalizations (15% vs 10%; HR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.18-2.50; P=.01) but faced higher noncardiac mortality (30.0% vs 11.0%; HR=3.01; 95% CI, 2.33-3.88; P<.001) than controls, attributable solely to cancer-related deaths.
Conclusion: One in 10 patients in this contemporary registry of patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI has a history of cancer. These patients have more than a 3 times higher acute in-hospital and long-term noncardiac mortality risk but no increased acute or long-term cardiac mortality risk with guideline-recommended cardiac care.
Copyright Â© 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.