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. 2016 Nov 28;8(12):763.
doi: 10.3390/nu8120763.

Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training

Free PMC article

Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training

Jorn Trommelen et al. Nutrients. .
Free PMC article


Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training.

Keywords: casein; exercise; hypertrophy; recovery; sleep.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Schematic representation of the process of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB) throughout the day. Protein ingestion stimulates MPS rates and allows for net muscle protein accretion (green areas). During post-absorptive conditions, MPB rates exceed MPS rates, resulting in a net loss of muscle protein (red areas). Overnight sleep is the longest post-absorptive period of the day (A). Pre-sleep protein ingestion stimulates overnight muscle protein synthesis rates (B), thereby improving muscle reconditioning during overnight sleep.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Conceptual framework of the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to 40 g of pre-sleep protein feeding at rest or following prior exercise.

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