Model-observational bridging study on the effectiveness of ezetimibe on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in France: A population-based study

J Clin Lipidol. 2016 Nov-Dec;10(6):1379-1388. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2016.08.015. Epub 2016 Sep 7.


Background: To evaluate the real-life impact of ezetimibe on cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in France.

Objective: To estimate the number of non-fatal and fatal CV events that could be prevented and corresponding number of patients needed to treat (NNT) with ezetimibe to prevent one CV event over 5 years.

Methods: Non-interventional 48-month follow-up cohort conducted in hypercholesterolemic patients starting on ezetimibe <3 months at study entry, either as monotherapy or combined with statins. Prediction modeling using discrete event simulation with calibrated Framingham CV risk equations was applied to data from pivotal clinical trials on ezetimibe and real-life data derived from the cohort.

Results: A total of 3215 patients in the cohort accumulated 9314 person-years of follow-up for an average of 2.9 years. Mean age was 61.5 (standard deviation [SD] = 10.7), 54.6% were males, and 27.0% had a history of CV disease. Baseline LDL-cholesterol averaged 4.1 mmol/L (159 mg/dL; SD = 1.0) and HDL-C 1.6 mmol/L (62 mg/dL; SD = 0.5). LDL-C decreased in the first 12 months in ezetimibe-LLT (lipid-lowering therapy) initiators, switchers (monotherapy), and combination therapy with a statin by respectively 21.3%, 6.4%, and 29.1%. The corresponding predicted rate reductions of CV events (non-fatal and fatal) compared to no treatment or to a statin (combination therapy) were respectively 8, 2, and 12 per 1000 patients treated over 5 years, with a global NNT of 143 patients over 5 years.

Conclusion: These results, accounting for observed CV event rates, risk factors evolution over time and adherence to treatment in real life, were consistent with those from clinical trials.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Cohort; Hypercholesterolemia; Lipid-modifying drugs; Prevention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anticholesteremic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Cohort Studies
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Ezetimibe / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • France
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Hypercholesterolemia / complications
  • Hypercholesterolemia / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate


  • Anticholesteremic Agents
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Ezetimibe