Outcomes of the Smoker's Health Project: a pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial of tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory

Health Educ Res. 2016 Dec;31(6):749-759. doi: 10.1093/her/cyw046. Epub 2016 Oct 22.


A pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial examined whether extending the duration of a cost-effective, intensive tobacco-dependence intervention designed to support autonomy will facilitate long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory, namely, Intensive Treatment (IT; six contacts over 6 months), Extended Need Support (ENS; eight contacts over 12 months) and Harm Reduction (HR; eight contacts over 12 months with medication use if willing to reduce cigarette use by half). Among participants who completed the interventions, analyses revealed beneficial effects of ENS (15.7 versus 3.8%; χ 2(1) = 6.92, P < 0.01) and HR (13.6 versus 3.8%; χ 2(1) = 5.26, P < 0.05), relative to IT, on 12-month prolonged abstinence from tobacco. Also, analyses revealed beneficial effects of ENS (77.7 versus 43.0%; χ 2(1) = 24.90, P < 0.001) and HR (84.0 versus 43.0%; χ 2(1) = 37.41, P < 0.001), relative to IT, on use of first-line medications for smoking cessation. Hence, two new interventions were found to be efficacious particularly among participants who completed the interventions. Smokers who stay in treatment for an additional 6 months may benefit from an additional two contacts with practitioners, and thus it seems reasonable for policy makers to offer additional contacts given the health benefits associated with prolonged tobacco abstinence.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00178685.

Publication types

  • Pragmatic Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Comparative Effectiveness Research / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Personal Autonomy*
  • Program Evaluation
  • Psychological Theory
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / therapy*

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00178685