Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD), first-principles calculations, and electrical resistivity measurements were carried out under high pressure to investigate the structural stability and electrical transport properties of metavanadate MgV2O6. The results have revealed the coordination change of vanadium ions (from 5+1 to 6) at around 4 GPa. In addition, a pressure-induced structure transformation from the C2/m phase to the C2 phase in MgV2O6 was detected above 20 GPa, and both phases coexisted up to the highest pressure. This structural phase transition was induced by the enhanced distortions of MgO6 octahedra and VO6 octahedra under high pressure. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity decreased with pressure but exhibited different slope for these two phases, indicating that the pressure-induced structural phase transitions of MgV2O6 was also accompanied by the obvious changes in its electrical transport behavior.