Background: PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) is called a pathology of the XX century and affects at least 10-15% women of childbearing age. The therapy involves pharmacotherapy of hormonal imbalance, as well as the change of lifestyle, including the diet.
Objective: Performing the quantitative assessment of components of diets of women with PCOS, comparing the results with current dietary standards for Polish people and defining dietary requirements for the patients.
Material and methods: The study was performed on 54 women of childbearing age (average age 26.03± 5.52) with PCOS syndrome diagnosed according to on the Rotterdam criteria. Anthropometric measurements of the patients were made and BMI and WHR calculated. Quantitative assessment of women’s diets was performed based on the analysis of 3-day food diaries and food records taken from the previous 24h with the interview method. The data were introduced to a dietary software DIETA 5.0, calculating the average intake of the energy, nutrients, vitamins, minerals, cholesterol and dietary fibre. The obtained results were compared to Polish dietary guidelines.
Results: Examined group was characterized by increased waist circumference (98.71± 13.6 cm) and an average WHR was 0.92± 0.08. An increased average value of BMI was also shown (28.91± 5.54 kg/m2). The patients consumed, on average, 1952.5±472.7 kcal daily, and the risk of insufficient intake of protein was determined in 36.7% of examined women. The highest risk of deficiency in minerals in women with PCOS was related to calcium (634 mg), potassium (3493 mg) and magnesium (250.1 mg), whereas with reference to vitamins deficiency as much as 70% of tested women were at risk of insufficient intake of folic acid, 36.7% of them - vitamin C, and 26.7% - vitamin B12. The average consumption of vitamin D was at the level of 3.4 μg. Test group was characterized by excessive average consumption of total fat (50%), SFA (70.4%) and saccharose (50%). The percentage of people with excessive average intake of cholesterol was at the level of 40.74%. As much as 83.3% patients consumed too low amounts of dietary fibre in their diets (<25g).
Conclusions: In diet therapy of women with PCOS there should be higher intake of folic acid, vitamins D and C, cobalamin, dietary fibre and calcium. The consumption of total fats, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol should be reduced, as through facilitating the development of diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases, they affect the dysfunction of ovaries. The diet of some of the patients should be also supplemented by potassium, magnesium and zinc. The introduction of a properly balanced diet should be the key in the treatment of women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam criteria.