Epidemiology of Uveitis, Caused by HTLV-1, Toxoplasmosis, and Tuberculosis; the Three Leading Causes of Endemic Infectious Uveitis in Japan

Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2017;25(sup1):S19-S23. doi: 10.1080/09273948.2016.1253851. Epub 2016 Dec 7.


Ethnicity, geography, and socioeconomic factors are among the aspects influencing the prevalence of uveitis in specific areas and countries. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated uveitis and ocular toxoplasmosis are endemic to Southern Kyushu, the southern-most region of Japan. Recent reports have postulated that the prevalence of intraocular tuberculosis is increasing in Tokyo. This review focuses on local factors that affect the three major vectors for infectious endemic uveitis in Japan, as well as their routes of transmission and factors for improving diagnoses. This information will facilitate the promotion of public health measures aimed at decreasing uveitis prevalence in Japan.

Keywords: HTLV-1; Japan; intraocular tuberculosis; ocular toxoplasmosis; uveitis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endemic Diseases*
  • HTLV-I Infections / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular / epidemiology*
  • Tuberculosis, Ocular / epidemiology*
  • Uveitis / epidemiology*
  • Uveitis / microbiology
  • Uveitis / parasitology
  • Uveitis / virology