Strict blood pressure control associates with decreased mortality risk by APOL1 genotype

Kidney Int. 2017 Feb;91(2):443-450. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2016.09.033. Epub 2016 Dec 4.


Although APOL1 high-risk genotype partially accounts for the increased susceptibility of blacks to chronic kidney disease (CKD), whether APOL1 associates differentially with mortality risk remains controversial. Here we evaluate the association between APOL1 genotype and risk of death and determine whether APOL1 status modifies the association between strict versus usual blood pressure control and mortality risk. We performed a retrospective analysis of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension trial that randomized black participants with CKD to strict versus usual blood pressure control from 1995 to 2001. This included 682 participants with known APOL1 genotype (157 with high-risk genotype) previously assigned to either strict (mean arterial pressure [MAP] 92 mm Hg or less) versus usual blood pressure control (MAP 102-107 mm Hg) during the trial. During a median follow-up of 14.5 years, risk of death did not differ between individuals with high- versus low-risk APOL1 genotypes (unadjusted hazard ratio 1.00 [95% confidence interval 0.76-1.33]). However, a significant interaction was detected between the APOL1 risk group and blood pressure control strategy. In the APOL1 high-risk group, the risk of death was 42% lower comparing strict versus usual blood pressure control (0.58 [0.35-0.97]). In the APOL1 low-risk group, the risk of death comparing strict versus usual blood pressure control was not significantly different (1.09 [0.84-1.43]). Thus, strict blood pressure control during CKD associates with a lower risk of death in blacks with the high-risk CKD APOL1 genotype. Knowledge of APOL1 status could inform selection of blood pressure treatment targets in black CKD patients.

Keywords: APOL1 genotype; CKD; mortality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans / genetics
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Apolipoprotein L1
  • Apolipoproteins / genetics*
  • Arterial Pressure / drug effects*
  • Arterial Pressure / genetics
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / genetics
  • Hypertension / mortality
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Kidney / physiopathology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / genetics
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / mortality
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / genetics*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Protective Factors
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / genetics*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / mortality
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • APOL1 protein, human
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Apolipoprotein L1
  • Apolipoproteins
  • Lipoproteins, HDL