Rationale: Hysterosalpingography (HSG), a standard procedure for the evaluation of women with infertility and repetitive pregnancy loss, is associated with complications such as uterine perforation, infection, allergic reactions, syncope, hemorrhage and shock, and pulmonary or retinal embolus. However, hyperthyroidism has not been reported as one of its complications.
Patient concerns and diagnoses: We report the case of a 33-year-old euthyroid woman who presented to our hospital with palpitation, hand tremor, fatigue, and excessive sweating after HSG. Thyroid function tests revealed a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 0.012 μIU/mL (range 0.38-4.34 μIU/mL), free T4 of 2.886 ng/dL (range 0.81-1.89 ng/dL), and free T3 levels of 9.4 pg/mL (range 1.80-4.10 pg/mL), and antithyroglobulin antibody of 31.78 IU/mL (range <115 IU/mL). The triiodothyronine uptake was 3.057 ng/mL (range 0.66-1.92 ng/mL). Serum iodine (SI) and urinary iodine (UI) levels: SI of 4717.748 μg/L (range 45-90 μg/L) and UI of 18069.336 μg/L (range 26-705 μg/L).
Interventions and outcomes: The patient was diagnosed with iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (IIH), but was not treated with antithyroid drugs. She has spontaneously recovered and is pregnant currently.
Lessons: This is the first reported case of overt IIH caused by HSG in a euthyroid patient without risk factors. It suggests that HSG also leads to excessive iodine absorption, which induces secondary hyperthyroidism.