Influence of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile of soy sauce during fermentation

J Biosci Bioeng. 2017 Feb;123(2):203-208. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2016.08.010. Epub 2016 Dec 7.


Soy sauce is a Japanese traditional seasoning composed of various constituents that are produced by various microbes during a long-term fermentation process. Due to the complexity of the process, the investigation of the constituent profile during fermentation is difficult. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples, is thought to be a promising strategy for deep understanding of the constituent contribution to food flavor characteristics. Therefore, metabolomics is suitable for the analysis of soy sauce fermentation. Unfortunately, only few and unrefined studies of soy sauce fermentation using metabolomics approach have been reported. Therefore, we investigated changes in low molecular weight hydrophilic and volatile compounds of soy sauce using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted metabolic profiling. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis to evaluate influences of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile. Consequently, our results suggested a novel finding that lactic acid bacterium affected the production of several constituents such as cyclotene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol and methional in the soy sauce fermentation process.

Keywords: Constituent profile; Fermentation; Fermentation microbe; Metabolic profiling; Metabolomics; Soy sauce; Tetragenococcus halophilus; Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

MeSH terms

  • Aldehydes / analysis
  • Aldehydes / metabolism
  • Cyclopentanes / analysis
  • Cyclopentanes / metabolism
  • Enterococcaceae / metabolism
  • Enterococcaceae / physiology*
  • Fermentation*
  • Furaldehyde / analysis
  • Furaldehyde / metabolism
  • Furans / analysis
  • Furans / metabolism
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Lactic Acid / metabolism
  • Soy Foods / analysis*
  • Soy Foods / microbiology
  • Zygosaccharomyces / metabolism
  • Zygosaccharomyces / physiology*


  • Aldehydes
  • Cyclopentanes
  • Furans
  • methional
  • Lactic Acid
  • cyclotene
  • furfuryl alcohol
  • Furaldehyde