Dietary Patterns and Clinical Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: The CKD.QLD Nutrition Study

J Ren Nutr. 2017 May;27(3):175-182. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2016.10.005. Epub 2016 Dec 8.


Objective: Emerging evidence suggests that dietary patterns are associated with survival in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study evaluated the relationship between dietary habits and renal-related clinical outcomes in an established CKD cohort.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Three outpatient nephrology clinics in Queensland, Australia.

Subjects: A total of 145 adult patients with Stage 3 or 4 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate 15-59 mL/minute/1.73 m2).

Intervention: Dietary intake was measured using 24-hour recall and the HeartWise Dietary Habits Questionnaire (DHQ), which evaluates 10 components of dietary patterns in relation to cooking habits and intake of food groups.

Main outcome measure: The primary outcome was a composite end point of all-cause mortality, commencement of dialysis, and doubling of serum creatinine. Secondary outcome was all-cause mortality alone. Multivariate cox regression analyses calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between DHQ domains and occurrence of composite outcome and adjusted for confounders, including comorbidities and renal function.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 36 months, 32% (n = 47) reached the composite end point, of which 21% died (n = 30). Increasing DHQ score was associated with a lower risk of the composite end point with increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (HR: 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.94) and limiting alcohol consumption (HR, 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65-0.96). For the secondary outcome of all-cause mortality, there was a significant association with adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (HR: 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.83).

Conclusion: Healthy dietary patterns consisting of adequate fruits and vegetables and limited alcohol consumption are associated with a delay in CKD progression and improved survival in patients with Stage 3 or 4 CKD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Australia / epidemiology
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diet*
  • Disease Progression
  • Endpoint Determination
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Mental Recall
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Nutritional Status
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / mortality*
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vegetables


  • Creatinine