Introduction: At the 10th year anniversary of the first face transplantation, there are currently 36 patients worldwide, who are the recipients of faces coming from human donors.
Areas of agreement: Despite the initial debates and ethical concerns, face transplantation became a clinical reality with satisfactory functional outcomes.
Areas of controversy: The areas of controversy still include the impact of lifelong immunosuppression on otherwise healthy patients as well as the selection process of face transplant candidates.
Growing points: Other concerns include financial support for this new generation of transplants as well as social reintegration and patients return to work after face transplantation.
Areas timely for developing research: Based on over 20 years of research experience in the field of vascularized composite allotransplantation, and clinical experience as a leading surgeon of the US first face transplantation, this review will summarize the well-known facts as well as unexpected outcomes and challenges of face transplantation.
Keywords: controversies; face transplantation; future directions; outcomes.
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