Salvia officinalis (Sage) Leaf Extract as Add-on to Statin Therapy in Hypercholesterolemic Type 2 Diabetic Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial

Int J Mol Cell Med. 2016 Summer;5(3):141-148. Epub 2016 Sep 3.


The efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis combined with statin have not been evaluated in dyslipidemic diabetes mellitus type 2 (DDMT2) so far. The plant extract antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH radical scavenging assay. The total flavonoid, total phenolic and quercetin contents of the capsules containing the plant extract were also measured. Moreover, the effects of 2-month extract intake (500 mg capsule three times a day) as add-on to daily use of 15 mg glyburide, 2000 mg metformin and 10 mg atorvastatin on the blood levels of fasting glucose (FG), 2 h postprandial glucose (2hPPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and body mass index were studied in 50 patients and compared with the placebo group (n=50).The extract IC50 in the DPPH assay was 87.26±0.003 µg/mL (mean±SD), whereas the ascorbic acid IC50 was 5.626± 0.001 µg/mL (mean±SD). The total flavonoid, total phenolic and quercetin contents of the capsule containing the plant extract were 39.76±3.58 mg of rutin equivalents (mean±SD), 30.33±1.23 mg of gallic acid (mean±SD) and 0.13 mg, respectively. The extract lowered FG, 2hPPG, HbA1c, TC, LDL-C and triglyceride levels, but increased HDL-C level compared to the placebo at the endpoint (P<0.05). The extract did not affect the other parameters significantly and no adverse effect was reported. The extract has substantial antioxidant activity which may be beneficial for the prevention of the cardiovascular complications of DDMT2. Moreover, addition of the extract to statin therapy is apparently safe and further improves lipid profile.

Keywords: Salvia officinalis; diabetes mellitus; dyslipidemia; statin.