Background: An increase in effective malaria control since 2000 has contributed to a decline in global malaria morbidity and mortality. Knowing when and how existing interventions could be combined to maximise their impact on malaria vectors can provide valuable information for national malaria control programs in different malaria endemic settings. Here, we assess the effect of indoor residual spraying on malaria vector densities in a high malaria endemic setting in eastern Uganda as part of a cohort study where the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was high.
Methods: Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled monthly using CDC light traps in 107 households selected randomly. Information on the use of malaria interventions in households was also gathered and recorded via a questionnaire. A Bayesian spatio-temporal model was then used to estimate mosquito densities adjusting for climatic and ecological variables and interventions.
Results: Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) were most abundant (89.1%; n = 119,008) compared to An. funestus (sensu lato) (10.1%, n = 13,529). Modelling results suggest that the addition of indoor residual spraying (bendiocarb) in an area with high coverage of permethrin-impregnated LLINs (99%) was associated with a major decrease in mosquito vector densities. The impact on An. funestus (s.l.) (Rate Ratio 0.1508; 97.5% CI: 0.0144-0.8495) was twice as great as for An. gambiae (s.l.) (RR 0.5941; 97.5% CI: 0.1432-0.8577).
Conclusions: High coverage of active ingredients on walls depressed vector populations in intense malaria transmission settings. Sustained use of combined interventions would have a long-term impact on mosquito densities, limiting infectious biting.
Keywords: Anopheles; Anopheles gambiae; Indoor Residual Spraying; Malaria; Modelling.