Wilms tumor: "State-of-the-art" update, 2016

Semin Pediatr Surg. 2016 Oct;25(5):250-256. doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2016.09.003. Epub 2016 Sep 4.


Despite an impressive increase in survival rate over the past decades, there is still a need to improve the survival of specific subgroups of Wilms tumor (anaplastic, metastatic, and bilateral) and to decrease the late effects of treatment in terms of renal function and heart toxicity. We aim to explore new areas of improvement, from diagnosis to treatment: in the field of radiology the increased use of MRI and exploration of its diffusion-weighted imaging capabilities to predict WT histology at diagnosis and for preoperative assessment; in biology the emergence of new biomarkers that could be integrated into the decision-making process; and surgical techniques with more accurate indication of nephron-sparing surgery that is no longer reserved for bilateral WT and the minimally invasive approach. The long-term outcome of patients with WT should thus be a strong indicator of the improvement in adapting and personalizing the treatment to each individual.

Keywords: Biology; MRI; Minimally invasive surgery; NSS; Wilms tumor.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Kidney Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Kidney Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Kidney Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
  • Nephrectomy / methods
  • Preoperative Care / methods
  • Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Wilms Tumor* / diagnosis
  • Wilms Tumor* / metabolism
  • Wilms Tumor* / therapy


  • Biomarkers, Tumor