Background: Surgery is indicated for cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) that cause medically refractory epilepsy. Real-time magnetic resonance thermography (MRT)-guided stereotactic laser ablation (SLA) is a minimally invasive approach to treating focal brain lesions. SLA of CCM has not previously been described.
Objective: To describe MRT-guided SLA, a novel approach to treating CCM-related epilepsy, with respect to feasibility, safety, imaging, and seizure control in 5 consecutive patients.
Methods: Five patients with medically refractory epilepsy undergoing standard presurgical evaluation were found to have corresponding lesions fulfilling imaging characteristics of CCM and were prospectively enrolled. Each underwent stereotactic placement of a saline-cooled cannula containing an optical fiber to deliver 980-nm diode laser energy via twist drill craniostomy. MR anatomic imaging was used to evaluate targeting prior to ablation. MR imaging provided evaluation of targeting and near real-time feedback regarding extent of tissue thermocoagulation. Patients maintained seizure diaries, and remote imaging (6-21 months post-ablation) was obtained in all patients.
Results: Imaging revealed no evidence of acute hemorrhage following fiber placement within presumed CCM. MRT during treatment and immediate post-procedure imaging confirmed desired extent of ablation. We identified no adverse events or neurological deficits. Four of 5 (80%) patients achieved freedom from disabling seizures after SLA alone (Engel class 1 outcome), with follow-up ranging 12-28 months. Reimaging of all subjects (6-21 months) indicated lesion diminution with surrounding liquefactive necrosis, consistent with the surgical goal of extended lesionotomy.
Conclusion: Minimally invasive MRT-guided SLA of epileptogenic CCM is a potentially safe and effective alternative to open resection. Additional experience and longer follow-up are needed.
Keywords: Epilepsy; cavernous malformation; laser therapy; magnetic resonance imaging; minimally invasive surgical procedures; stereotactic techniques; thermometry.