A Clinicopathologic Study of Oral Changes in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Gastritis, and Ulcerative Colitis

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016 Nov 1;17(11):943-947. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1959.

Abstract

Objectives: The aim and objectives of this study are to identify oral changes in certain gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, namely gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcerative colitis, gastritis, and to evaluate these oral symptoms as indicators for assessing GI disorders.

Materials and methods: In this study, the oral manifestations of various GI disorders were assessed in a varying age group of 250 patients in Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Out of 250 patients, 142 were affected by GERD, 99 were affected by gastritis, and 9 patients were affected by ulcerative colitis. Of these patients, 177 were males and 73 were females.

Results: Evaluation of patients with gastritis revealed that 66.7% affected with gingivitis, 19.2% with dental erosion on the palatal and lingual aspects of maxillary and mandibular teeth predominantly in the anterior region, 10.1% with periodontitis, 2% with gingival erythema. Among the patients with GERD, 44% of the cases showed dental erosion, 25.5% periodontitis, 9.9% gingivitis, 5.7% gingival erythema, 2.8% palatal erythema, 2.1% gingival ulcers, glossitis 2%, 1.4% floor of the mouth erythema, and 0.7% erythema of the tongue. Patients with ulcerative colitis showed 44.4% of gingival erythema, 33.3% of dental erosions, and 22.2% of gingival ulcers and periodontitis.

Conclusion: In our study of 250 patients, oral manifestations were observed in 88% of the patients. Both soft tissue and hard tissue changes were evident. There was a high correlation between various GI disease and dental erosion, erythema at various sites of the oral cavity, oral ulcers, gingivitis, periodontitis, and glossitis. Careful evaluation of oral cavity may unveil many GI disorders and help the patient by providing early diagnosis, which further facilitates the prognosis.

Keywords: Gastritis; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Oral manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders Ulcerative colitis..

MeSH terms

  • Colitis, Ulcerative / complications*
  • Dental Caries / etiology
  • Female
  • Gastritis / complications*
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications*
  • Gingivitis / etiology
  • Gingivitis / pathology
  • Hospitals, Public
  • Humans
  • India
  • Male
  • Mouth Diseases / etiology
  • Mouth Diseases / pathology
  • Oral Ulcer / etiology
  • Oral Ulcer / pathology
  • Periodontitis / etiology
  • Periodontitis / pathology
  • Stomatognathic Diseases / etiology*
  • Stomatognathic Diseases / pathology*
  • Tooth Erosion / etiology
  • Tooth Erosion / pathology