A conceptual framework for a long-term economic model for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2017 Jun;17(3):283-292. doi: 10.1080/14737167.2017.1271325. Epub 2016 Dec 26.


Background: Models incorporating long-term outcomes (LTOs) are not available to assess the health economic impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Objective: Develop a conceptual modelling framework capable of assessing long-term economic impact of ADHD therapies.

Methods: Literature was reviewed; a conceptual structure for the long-term model was outlined with attention to disease characteristics and potential impact of treatment strategies.

Results: The proposed model has four layers: i) multi-state short-term framework to differentiate between ADHD treatments; ii) multiple states being merged into three core health states associated with LTOs; iii) series of sub-models in which particular LTOs are depicted; iv) outcomes collected to be either used directly for economic analyses or translated into other relevant measures.

Conclusions: This conceptual model provides a framework to assess relationships between short- and long-term outcomes of the disease and its treatment, and to estimate the economic impact of ADHD treatments throughout the course of the disease.

Keywords: ADHD; ADHD therapy; conceptual model framework; long-term disease outcomes; long-term model.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / economics*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / physiopathology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / therapy
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Models, Economic*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome