Vitamin D deficiency is associated with acute ischemic stroke, C-reactive protein, and short-term outcome

Metab Brain Dis. 2017 Apr;32(2):493-502. doi: 10.1007/s11011-016-9939-2. Epub 2016 Dec 14.


The aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is associated with acute ischemic stroke, inflammatory markers, and short-term outcome. 168 acute ischemic stroke patients and 118 controls were included. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was applied up to 8 h of admission (baseline) and after three-months follow-up, and blood samples were obtained up to 24 h of admission to evaluate serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D [25(OH)D] and inflammatory markers. Vitamin D levels classified the individuals in sufficient (VDS ≥ 30.0 ng/mL), insufficient (VDI 20.0-29.9 ng/mL), and deficient (VDD < 20.0 ng/mL) status. Patients had lower levels of 25(OH)D, higher frequency of VDD (43.45% vs. 5.08%, OR: 16.64, 95% CI: 5.66-42.92, p < 0.001), and higher inflammatory markers than controls (p < 0.05). Patients with VDD showed increased high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels than those with VDS status (p = 0.043); those with poor outcome presented with lower 25(OH)D levels than those with good outcome (p = 0.008); moreover, 25(OH)D levels were negatively correlated with mRS after three-months follow-up (r = -0.239, p = 0.005). The associations between VDD and higher hsCRP levels and between 25(OH)D levels and poor outcome at short-term in acute ischemic stroke patients suggest the important role of vitamin D in the inflammatory response and pathophysiology of this ischemic event.

Keywords: C-reactive protein; Inflammation; Stroke; Vitamin D; Vitamin D deficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers
  • Brain Ischemia / blood*
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hydroxycholecalciferols / blood
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritional Status
  • Stroke / blood*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vitamin D / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications


  • Biomarkers
  • Hydroxycholecalciferols
  • Vitamin D
  • C-Reactive Protein